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      HISTORY :   

Kandilli Observatory, is a unique organization in Turkey, was annexed to Boğaziçi University on the basis of cabinet executive order 41 on 28 March 1983 and has acquired an institutionalstatus, namely KANDILLI OBSERVATORY AND EARTHQUAKE RESEARCH INSTITUTE (KOERI).

From 1868 to today, the development of the Observatory and the researches conducted can be summarized into three important periods: 1868-1909-1911-1982, and from 1982 to the present: an Academic Institute.


“Istanbul Rasathanesi”, also known as “Rasathane-i Amire”, in history of Turkish science, was established in 1868 across the Della Suda pharmacy in the Pera Street (presently Istiklal Caddesi). In the beginning, it was not an astronomical observatory, but housed the central meteorology office. Observations were performed on the 74 m high Pera hill. Later as it was apparent from “Salhane”, which is the astronomy calendar published by the observatory covering the planets, cornets, latitude settings, and transformations from star time to sun time, that the meteorology office made an effort to be an astronomical observatory.

The information collected from Observation archives indicate that, engineers and navigators used instruments for the determination of magnetic declination and accurate time. These instruments were later moved to a building across to Maçka Topçu Okulu (Macka Artillery School) which was destroyed by religious fundamentalists during the “March 31 Rebellion” on April 12, 1909.


  After the 31 Mart incident, on 21 June 1910 Emrullah Efendi, the Minister of Education in the new Ottoman government, appointed Fatin Hoca (Fatin Gökmen) to reestablish the observatory. Fatin Gökmen chose the Icadiye Hill, the president site, for the location of the observatory. At the time there was nothing on Icadiye Hill except small buildings housing the Artillery Division of the Bosphorus Command and a stone tower used by fire watchmen. On September 4, 1910, the observatory was temporarily housed in the buildings vacated by the Artillery Division. Using the budget supplied by the Ministry of Education, the available buildings were reorganized and the equipment necessary for a first class Meteorology Station was ordered. Dating from July 1, 1911, continuous and systematic meteorology parameters have been measured and recorded. Daily weather forecast reports were prepared for Istanbul and accurate time determination which were obtained from sexant observations were transmitted to the State Postal (PTT) and Railway (DDY) administrations.

In 1912 “Umumi Havaiye Müfettişliği” (General Meteorological Inspectorate) was established for getting the meteorological information that will assist the navigation of the military planes. As the First World War ended the Ministry of Education changed its name to “Tetkikatı İklimiye Müfettişliği” (Climatological Investigations Inspectorate) and its objective to fulfill the civilian needs, and annexed it to “Rasathane-I Amire” (State Observatory).

During the years following the foundation of Republic of  Turkey, the name “Rasathane-I Amire” was officially used. After the Alphabet Revolution the Observatory was renamed as “Maarif Vekaleti Hey’et ve Fiziki Arzi Istanbul Rasathanesi”. “Kandilli Rasathanesi” (Kandilli Observatory) was officially fist used in 1939i as it can be seen on the publications. The name “Kandilli Observatory, Astronomy and Geophysics” came into use after 1940.

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Telif hakkı Boğaziçi Üniversitesi, Kandilli Rasathanesi ve Deprem Araştırma Enstitüsü
1995-2000, 81220, Çengelköy, Istanbul,  Tel: (90 216) 308 05 14